Next Generation Science Standards *

Any Hummingbird project will meet this standard.
A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by directly demonstrating a concept.
A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by illustrating a concept.
This standard may be difficult to meet with Hummingbird projects.

Grade 4 | Grade 5 | Middle School

Grade : 4
PE code Standard Hummingbird Application Related Activities
3-5-ETS1-1 Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. All projects should require students to define the goals for their robot design. Attention to specified criteria and relevant constraints are necessary to successfully complete a project. All Projects
3-5-ETS1-2 Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. All projects should require students to brainstorm multiple project possibilities before they begin to build or program their robot. All Projects
3-5-ETS1-3 Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. All projects will require students to test their robot design and program. Students will make improvements based on this testing. All Projects
4-ESS1-1 Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time. This standard focuses on student interpretation of samples or images. Students could demonstrate this knowledge using the Hummingbird, but that is not the main goal of this standard.
4-ESS2-1 Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. This standard requires measurement of the outdoor environment.
4-ESS2-2 Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features. This standard emphasizes map analysis. Students could demonstrate this knowledge using the Hummingbird, but that is not the main goal of this standard.
4-ESS3-1 Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. Students can construct a model to summarize their research.
Energy Saving Prototypes
4-ESS3-2 Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans. After brainstorming, students can construct a prototype to describe their solution. For example, students might use the Hummingbird to illustrate an idea for protecting communities by early detection of tsunamis.
Energy Saving Prototypes
4-LS1-1 Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. Students can construct a robotic animal to demonstrate how its features support survival. For instance, this video shows a robotic turtle created with the Hummingbird.
4-LS1-2 Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways. Robots that use sensors work by collecting information, processing it, and responding. This is analogous to the way humans/animals use their senses. All Projects
4-PS3-1 Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. The gear motor can rotate at different speeds. If a rod attached to the gear motor hits a light object, a higher speed will make the object move farther.
4-PS3-2 Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. The Hummingbird includes LEDs and motors that convert electricity to light and motion, respectively. Also, the sensors convert light, motion, or heat to an electrical signal.
Art Bots,
Energy Saving Prototypes
4-PS3-3 Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. Hummingbird motors could be used to make parts of the robot collide. However, the learning goals for this standard would be complicated by the fact that the motion of the motor does not always appear to change when it collides with an object.
4-PS3-4 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another. The Hummingbird can be used to construct devices that convert electricity to light and motion. Also, the sensors convert light, motion, or heat to an electrical signal.
Art Bots,
Energy Saving Prototypes
4-PS4-1 Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move. The gear motor can be used to construct a cardboard crankshaft, rod, and piston. Such a system will transform rotation into linear (back and forth) motion. The speed of the motor and the size of the pieces can change the amplitude and frequency of the wave. Creating Waves with a Gear Motor
4-PS4-2 Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen. An LED can be used to investigate how the color of an object depends upon the color of the light that illuminates it. For example,objects illuminated by a green LED appear green.
4-PS4-3 Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information. Students can use three LEDs to create codes for eight different letters. These letters can then be used to spell words. Codes with Binary

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Grade : 5
PE code Standard Hummingbird Application Related Activities
3-5-ETS1-1 Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. All projects should require students to define the goals for their robot design. Attention to specified criteria and relevant constraints are necessary to successfully complete a project.
3-5-ETS1-2 Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. All projects should require students to brainstorm multiple project possibilities before they begin to build or program their robot.
3-5-ETS1-3 Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. All projects will require students to test their robot design and program. Students will make improvements based on this testing.
5-ESS1-1 Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth. The Constellations lesson uses LEDs to represent stars. Students program the LEDs to have the appropriate relative brightness.
Constellations
5-ESS1-2 Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. The Constellations lesson uses LEDs to represent stars. Students use a servo motor to show the movement of the constellation across the sky. A similar approach can be used to have students show how the Earth moves relative to the sun or stars.
Constellations
5-ESS2-1 Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. Students can use the Hummingbird to illustrate an example of this interaction.
5-ESS2-2 Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth. The Hummingbird can be used with Scratch or Snap! to compute the percentages and display the output on the computer screen as well as with motors and/or lights.
5-ESS3-1 Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment. Students can create a Hummingbird project that describes ways to conserve resources. Scratch or Snap! may be used so that information can also be displayed on the computer screen.
Energy Saving Prototypes
5-LS1-1 Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water. Students can use the Hummingbird to create a project that illustrates the factors required for plant growth.
5-LS2-1 Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a robotic diorama to illustrate how matter changes form within a system.
5-PS1-1 Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. Students can use a servo or gear motor to create a fan. Their goal is to move thin strips of material (e.g. mylar) without touching them.
5-PS1-2 Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. This standard emphasizes laboratory techniques such as measurement and mixing substances.
5-PS1-3 Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. This standard emphasizes laboratory techniques to measure properties like hardness and conductivity.
5-PS1-4 Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances. This standard emphasizes laboratory techniques such as measurement and mixing substances.
5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Students can construct a device that moves a pendulum. No matter how the robot moves the pendulum, it will always be directed down at rest.
5-PS3-1 Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical representation of this process. The Energy Transformations lesson shows an example of how students presented a similar process with the Hummingbird.
Energy Transformations using Hummingbird Robotics

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Grade : Middle School
PE code Standard Hummingbird Application Related Activities
MS-ESS1-1 Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a moving model of the Earth-sun-moon system. A related example, the Constellations lesson, uses a servo motor to show the movement of a constellation across the sky.
Constellations
MS-ESS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. Students can use the hummingbird to construct a moving physical representation of their model. A related project is shown in the Constellations lesson.
Constellations
MS-ESS1-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. This standard focuses on the analysis of data from pictures and tables.
MS-ESS1-4 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history. Students can use the Hummingbird to depict the layers of rock in the Earth’s crust. Lights and motors can be used to illustrate the important properties of these layers. Scratch or Snap! can be used to present additional information on the computer screen.
MS-ESS2-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical representation of this cycle. The Energy Transformations lesson shows an example of how students presented a multi-step process with the Hummingbird.
Energy Transformations using Hummingbird Robotics
MS-ESS2-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales. A motor can be used to represent a geoscience process. For example, vibration motors could be used to represent an earthquake. Lights and other motors can be used to illustrate how the geoscience process changes the landscape.
MS-ESS2-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. This standard emphasizes the analysis of pictures, maps, and other geologic data.
MS-ESS2-4 Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity. A gear motor and lights can be used to illustrate the different parts of the water cycle.
MS-ESS2-5 Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions. This standard emphasizes pressure differences, which cannot be measured with the Hummingbird.
MS-ESS2-6 Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates. Students can use the Hummingbird to demonstrate the Coriolis effect. Demonstration of the Coriolis Effect
MS-ESS3-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes. Students can create an interactive map that uses lights or motors to illustrate the distribution of resources. This map can change to represent the removal of natural resources. Scratch or Snap! can be used to present additional information on the computer screen.
MS-ESS3-2 Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects. This standard focuses on the analysis of data about natural hazards.
MS-ESS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. Students can use the Hummingbird to create a prototype of their design. An example with younger students is shown in Energy Saving Prototypes, but this project can be extended for middle school students.
Energy Saving Prototypes
MS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems. Students can use a sensor input to represent the population. As the sensor value increases, the corresponding decrease in the amount of a natural resource can be shown on the computer screen. This project would require Scratch or Snap!.
MS-ESS3-5 Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century. This standard focuses on the analysis of data in graphs and tables.
MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solut All projects should require students to define the design problem for their robot, including specified criteria and relevant constraints. Students at this age should document the scientific principles involved in their design and how an individual will use it. All Projects
MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. All projects should require students to brainstorm multiple project possibilities before they begin to build or program their robot. Students should document how they will test that their design meets the specified criteria and constraints. All Projects
MS-ETS1-3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. All projects will require students to test and modify their robot design and program. Students should document these tests and all changes made to the device. Students should particularly focus on how each change affects the device’s ability to meet the specified criteria and constraints. All Projects
MS-ETS1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. All project will give students the experience of iterative design. Documenting this process will enable them to develop a mental model of the design process that includes testing and modification. All Projects
MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. The standard involves the analysis of microscope images.
MS-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function. Students can use the Hummingbird to create a robotic diorama illustrating the cell and its parts.
MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells. The Arm Lab Lesson shows how students can use the Hummingbird kit to represent the function of a system of the body.
MS-LS1-4 Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively. Students can construct a robotic version of a plant or animal that describes the behaviors or structures that enable it to survive and reproduce. For instance, this video shows a robotic turtle created with the Hummingbird. Scratch or Snap! can be used to provide more information on the computer screen.
MS-LS1-5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms. Students can create a robot that explains how these factors affect the growth of organisms.
MS-LS1-6 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms. Students can create a robotic illustration of the flow of energy. The Energy Transformations lesson shows an example of how students presented a similar process with the Hummingbird.
Energy Transformations using Hummingbird Robotics
MS-LS1-7 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical artifact representing their model. Servo motors can be used to show how the molecules separate and then form different molecules in a chemical reaction. A related example is shown in the Chemical Reaction sketch. Chemical Reaction
MS-LS1-8 Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories. Robots that use sensors work by collecting information, processing it, and responding. This is analogous to the way humans use their senses. Students can also use Scratch or Snap! to store information from the robot’s sensors in variables. These function as the robot’s memory. All Projects
MS-LS2-1 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. This standard requires the analysis of a simulation or data table, though the results of this analysis could be presented with the Hummingbird.
MS-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. Students can create a robotic diorama to depict a predator/prey relationship.
MS-LS2-3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Students can create a robotic illustration of the flow of energy. The Energy Transformations lesson shows an example of how students presented a similar process with the Hummingbird.
Energy Transformations using Hummingbird Robotics
MS-LS2-4 Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. Students can use a sensor to represent the amount of an item, such a s food source, in an ecosystem. Lights or motors can be used to illustrate how this item affects populations.
MS-LS2-5 Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. Students can use the Hummingbird to create prototypes of their design solutions.
MS-LS3-1 Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. Students can use the Hummingbird to illustrate how mutations cause cells to manufactures different proteins. For example, servo motors could move objects that represent parts of a chromosome or protein.
MS-LS3-2 Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. Students can use the Hummingbird and Scratch (or Snap!) to create a simple simulation of genetic variation. Genetics Simulation
MS-LS4-1 Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past. This standard requires analyzing pictures of fossils.
MS-LS4-2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. Students can use the Hummingbird kit to illustrate their explanation. For example, lights or motors can be used to highlight similarities between organisms.
MS-LS4-3 Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy. This standard focuses on analyzing pictures of embryo development.
MS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment. Students can use the Hummingbird and Scratch (or Snap!) to create a simple simulation of genetic variation. They can use this simulation to support their argument for how traits increase or decrease an individual’s chances of reproducing. Genetics Simulation
MS-LS4-5 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. Students can use the Hummingbird to present their research. Scratch or Snap! can be used to present additional information on the computer screen.
MS-LS4-6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. Students can use the Hummingbird and Scratch (or Snap!) to create a simple simulation of genetic variation. They can use this simulation to support their argument of how traits increase or decrease in a population over time. Genetics Simulation
MS-PS1-1 Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. This standard focuses primarily on drawings or ball and stick models of simple molecules. The Hummingbird is more appropriate for representing models of how molecules move (MS-PS1-4 and MS-PS1-5).
MS-PS1-2 Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. This standard emphasizes laboratory techniques such as burning or mixing substances to observe chemical reactions.
MS-PS1-3 Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. Students can create a Hummingbird project describing how chemical reactions create synthetic materials from natural resources. Scratch or Snap! can be used so that information can also be displayed on the computer screen.
MS-PS1-4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical artifact representing their model. The vibration motors can be used to show how the movement of particles changes when thermal energy is added or removed.
MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical artifact representing their model. Servo motors can be used to show how the atoms separate and then form different molecules in a chemical reaction. Chemical Reaction
MS-PS1-6 Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes. The Hummingbird can be used to create a device to control the chemical reaction. In addition, the temperature sensor can be used to measure the change in temperature as thermal energy is released or absorbed. With Scratch or Snap!, the temperature can be displayed on the computer screen. This project should only use chemical reactions that will not damage the Hummingbird components.
MS-PS2-1 Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. Students can use the Hummingbird to design a system that uses collisions to accomplish a goal. An example is the Rube Goldberg Machine lesson. Note: An object attached to a motor has a source of energy that complicates the collision. Student projects should include collisions where neither object is attached to a motor.
A Robotic Rube Goldberg Machine
MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. The Hummingbird servo motor can move a light object, but not a heavy one. Students could be challenged to use multiple servos to move a heavy object. Lifting a Heavy Load
Amusement Park Physics
MS-PS2-3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. Students could create a graph to analyze how the voltage to the gear motor affects the number of rotations per minute. Measuring Motor Speed
MS-PS2-4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. This standard emphasizes analysis of gravitational force data from simulations or tables.
MS-PS2-5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. Students can be challenged to use the Hummingbird to move an object without touching it. One possible solution is to attach a magnet to the robot and one to the object to be moved.
MS-PS3-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. This standard focuses on graphing the equation for kinetic energy. A simulation or table of data would be more appropriate for this standard (or students could use Scratch to create their own simulation!).
MS-PS3-2 Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical representation of their model. One solution might be to use the motors to release objects from different heights. Students can use Scratch or Snap! to display additional information on the computer screen.
MS-PS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. The Hummingbird can be used with Scratch or Snap! to measure the temperature inside the device and graph it to the computer screen.
MS-PS3-4 Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. The Hummingbird can be used with Scratch or Snap! to measure the temperature of samples and graph it to the computer screen. Students can then compare the graphs for different samples.
MS-PS3-5 Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. Students can use the Hummingbird to construct a physical demonstration to support their argument. This demonstration might include one object transferring energy to another, as in the Rube Goldberg Machine lesson. Students can use Scratch or Snap! to display additional information on the computer screen.
A Robotic Rube Goldberg Machine,
Amusement Park Physics
MS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. The gear motor can be used to construct a cardboard crankshaft, rod, and piston. Such a system will transform rotation into linear (back and forth) motion. The speed of the motor and the size of the pieces can change the amplitude and frequency of the wave. Students can be challenged to create a wave with a specific frequency and amplitude. Creating Waves with a Gear Motor
MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. Students can use the sound sensor to investigate which materials transmit sound.
MS-PS4-3 Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. Students can transmit a digital signal using the single color LEDs. Codes with Binary

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